Product Review Cameron Abney and Associates Formulas and Conversion Charts


A.            Boiler Formulas

Boiler Horse Power (HP):

BHP = (Lb/hr) * FE / 34.5

where Lb/hr is pounds of steam per hour and FE is the factor of evaporation.


S=HP * 34.5 * t

where HP is boiler horsepower and t is time (h).

Cycle of Concentration of Boiler Water:

CYC=Bch / FCh

where  Bch  is  ppm  water  chlorides  and FCh is ppm feedwater chlorides.

Differential Setting (lb):

Delta S = P1 – P2

where P1 is the cutout pressure and P2 is the cut in pressure

Factor of Evaporation:

FE = SH + LH / 970.3

where SH is the sensible heat and LH is the latent heat.

Force (lb):

F=P / A

where P is pressure (psi) and A is area (in^2).

Horsepower (HP):

HP=(d * t) / (t * 33000)

where d is distance, F is force, and t is time.



Inches of Mercury (in):

InHG=P / 0.491

where P is pressure

Percent of Blowdown:

%BD=(PP – RP) / PP

where PR is popping pressure and RP is reseat pressure

Rate of Combustion (Btu/hr) RC=H / (Vf * t)

where H is heat released (BTU), Vf is volume of furnace (ft^3), and t is time (hr).

Return Condensate Percentage in Feedwater RC%=(MC – FC) / (MC – CC)

where MC is the makeup conductivity (μohms), FC is the feedwater conductivity (μohms), and CC is the condensate conductivity (μohms).

Static Head Pressure (lb)

SHP= Bpr * 2.31

where Bpr = boiler pressure (psi)

Temperature Conversions:

F to C

C = (F – 32) / 1.8

C to F

F = (1.8 * C) + 32

Total Force (lb)

TF = P*A

where P is pressure (psi) and A is the area of valve disc exposed to steam (sq. in.)

Water Column (in)

WC = P / 0.03061   where P is pressure (psi).


B. Combustion Chemistry

Flue gas analysis:

Boiler flue gas analysis is used to determine

combustion efficiency.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Indicates complete combustion
Carbon Monoxide (CO) Indicates incomplete combustion
Oxygen (O2) Indicates the presence of excess air
Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) A product of high temperature combustion
Combustibles Material that burns when exposed to oxygen and heat


It is typical to target oxygen levels of 8% in low fire and 3% in high fire for gas fired burners.

It is typical to target oxygen levels of 6% in low fire and 4% in high fire for oil fired burners.

Johnston Boiler Company  recommends  no greater level than 200 ppm of Carbon Monoxide in its burner operation. The acceptable “Industry Standard” level is 400 ppm or less.

Johnston Boiler Company recommends zero combustibles for a gas fired burner.

Johnston Boiler Company recommends a maximum #2 Smokespot (Ringelmann Chart) in its oil fired burner.

Air Properties:

For a burner originally adjusted to 15% air, changes in combustion air temperature and  barometric pressure cause the following in excess air:

Air Temperature

Barometric Pressure (In. HG)

Resulting Excess Air %*











































* Expressed as a percent of the Stoichiometric air required.

C. Energy Loss From Scale Deposits






















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Product Review Cameron Abney and Associates BRS Sales & Services


Product Review Cameron Abney and Associates BRS Sales & Services

Offering a complete system approach on all fire and water tube boilers since 1977

Operation Controls

BRS offers customized combustion controls.

State-of-the-art combustion control

Burner Management

Preferred Instruments BurnerMate Boiler Controls

Customized digital panels

Remote access

24/7 customer support

Human/Machine/Interface (HMI) computer systems

NFPA 70E PPE requirements

NEMA rated enclosures

UL listed parts

PLC programming


Operation and Repair Services

Combustion calibration, optimizing firing rates and reduced emissions

Startup analysis

Corrosion/failure analysis

Boiler burner management and combustion control repairs and upgrades

Electrical control systems, using PLC HMI interface and meeting NFPA 70E PPE requirements

Natural gas and oil fuel trains flow metering and measurement

Feed water level control flow metering and monitoring

Chemical feed systems analysis

Prepare for code inspections

Plant surveys and recommendations by certified P.E. to increase plant efficiency.

Through associated repair companies, re-tubes, new tubes, welding, piping, refractory work


Maintenance Services

Customized maintenance agreements, incorporating the auxiliary equipment in your boiler room

Annual, Bi-Annual, or Monthly planned maintenance work agreements


Boiler Equipment and Services

Boiler rentals through associated supplier ranging from 30HP to 650HP ready to ship on 24 hour notice

Hot water heat exchangers separate or part of boiler rental package

Steam boiler rentals through associated supplier up to 30,000 lb/hr

Burner Conversions Removal of old burner and combustion controls and installation of gas, oil or combination fuel burners, complete fuel train installations or fuel valve components, and boiler pressure and temperature controls

Through associated repair companies, complete A.S.M.E. services


Blow down separators

Chemical feed systems

Lead-lag systems


Gas fired water heaters

Indirect fired water heaters

Boiler feed systems



Products Offered

Visit our Products Offered page for a complete list.

Flame Safe Guard, IR and UV flame scanners, flame amplifiers, flame rods, ignition rods, sight glass, relays, indicating lights, switches, burner internals, gas pilots, fuses, contractors, motors, motor starters, wet and dry gaskets, door insulation blanket, refractory products, tubes, burners, gas valves, gas regulators, air compressors, oil atomizing assemblies, oil pumps, water level controls, safety relief valves, and other equipment.

Training Take advantage of our unique operator’s training program. We offer hands-on training that’s supplemented with our very own crafted manual.

Support Guides We can help create consistent operating practices with customized reference guides that display right in your boiler room. Options include daily logging, data aquisition, blowdown procedures, and basic troubleshooting.

CAD Drawings Revise old drawings and hand revisions into AutoCad. System Schematics, 3-D modeling, electrical, structural, and/or mechanical drawings.

Call for assistance to find the part(s) you need.

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Product Review Cameron Abney and Associates Boiler Room Services, Inc. is a UL 508A Panel Shop


Product Review Cameron Abney and Associates Boiler Room Services, Inc. is a UL 508A Panel Shop




Offering a complete system approach on all fire and water tube boilers since 1977


For over 35 years Boiler Room Services, Inc. has provided maintenance, upgrades, and emergency services for all makes of fire tube and water tube boilers in commercial and industrial facilities, specializing in combustion controls. BRS was incorporated in the state of Pennsylvania in 1977 and continues to provide top quality products and services.


We are pleased to provide our customers all types of electrical control panels certified by Underwriters Laboratory. BRS utilizes parallel positioning into our UL combustion and burner management panels to provide a top-of-the-line combustion and control system with burner management. Call us for a demonstration of our test panel system.


We have a panel on site with a simulated boiler system for teaching and testing, capable of internet/distance simulation from your facility.


We are also able to provide our customers with UL 508A panel using Preferred Instruments’s Boiler Control Systems. Preferred Instruments offers microprocessor based controllers, instruments and electric actuators for combustion and process applications. BRS can provide extensive control system integration and personal computer based Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. Take a look at Preferred Instruments’s BurnerMate Boiler Control Systems on these power point presentations: BurnerMate TS Boiler Control System andBurnerMate Universal Boiler Control System. The Utility Savings these controls can provide are depicted in this power point show.


BRS also provides services for William & Davis Boilers,Parker Industrial Boiler and Thermogenics Inc. equipment as well as other boiler manufacturers. We offer custom design, state-of-the-art CAD drawings, boiler and steam plant installation services, and steam plant and boiler training. BRS commonly services boilers in Western Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Eastern Ohio, and Western Maryland.


Product Review Cameron Abney and Associates Boiler Room Services, Inc. is a UL 508A Panel Shop


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Reviews by Abney and Associates, Code 85258081704

Internet Reviews Abney Associates Blog Articles

The US Federal Trade Commission has carried out a huge international crackdown on a number of “tech support” scams being run out of India which have conned people in the UK, US, Canada and elsewhere out of millions of pounds since 2008.

As explained by the Guardian in 2010, the scams used “boiler room” tactics, dialling through phone books for English-speaking countries. People who answered the phone were told the call came from Microsoft or their internet service provider, and that the person’s computer was “reporting viruses”. The caller would then perform an unnecessary “fix” on the computer and charge the person for it – and sometimes sign them up to multi-year “support” contracts. The cost could run to hundreds of pounds.

People in the US, UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand were targeted because they, like the people carrying out the scam, are English-speaking. The Guardian understands that the scam was worth millions of pounds a year to the organised gangs carrying it out.

At the FTC’s request in six cases, a federal district judge froze the US assets of 17 people and 14 companies that have been accused of taking part in the operations. The FTC has also shut down 80 internet domain names and 130 phone numbers used in the US to carry out the scams.

The FTC is seeking an end to the scams, and repayments for people who were conned out of money.

Though the FTC said it could not put a figure on how many people had been scammed, or how much they had lost, Microsoft – which has been working with the commission for the past two years to try to catch the criminals – provided data on more than a thousand people who had been scammed, whose losses averaged $875 each.

Microsoft has repeatedly pointed out that it would not call people about any problems with their computers. In some cases, the scammers would try to sell antivirus software from reputable companies, and in some cases would install new copies of Windows on a machine. However the licence key used on the software allowed Microsoft to trace it back to its buyer, which aided the investigation.

The fraud occurred in several English-speaking countries. Joining the FTC in the enforcement action were the Australian Communications and Media Authority, the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission and the UK’s Serious Organised Crime Agency. David Vladeck, director of the FTC’s Bureau of Consumer Protection, said it was working with law enforcement officials in India to catch the alleged perpetrators. The commission has also referred the cases to the US justicedepartment for possible criminal prosecution.

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Online attempts to steal personal information on the rise in Hong Kong/WEEBLY

AN Abney Associates News Flash

Phishing sites, which masquerade as genuine websites to steal users’ personal information, are on the rise in Hong Kong, Microsoft warned on Thursday.

Some 6.23 phishing sites were found per 1,000 hosts in the fourth quarter last year, up from 6.01 in the third quarter, according to Microsoft’s latest Security Intelligence Report.

However, the number of malware infections remained low in the same period. Every 1,000 computers had 2.2 malware infections on average, the report found.

Tim Rains, director of product management in Microsoft’s Trustworthy Computing group, said the rise could be because Hong Kong is a financial centre and phishing sites masquerade as banking websites to steal information.

“The fact that we have a low malware infection rate in Hong Kong, but slightly elevated level of phishing is actually interesting,” he said.

He said the reason could be that the attackers were using a smaller number of compromised systems in Hong Kong to do more phishing than other attacks.

Roy Ko Wai-tak, manager of Hong Kong Computer Emergency Response Team Coordination Centre, said websites of small and medium enterprises were often hijacked by attackers to build phishing sites – which pose as big corporations – because of poor cyber security.

Rains also said the most common malware is called keygen, which comes with key generators that produce serial numbers required to run piracy software. Ko said it showed that Hong Kong people still continue to use piracy software.

The report, which also found that 2.5 out of 10 computers on average did not have up-to-date antivirus software in the city, was based on data from over 600 million computers worldwide using Microsoft’s products. The number of Hong Kong computers was unknown at the time of going to press.

AN Abney Associates News Flash


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Abney Associates The Cyber Front

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Anonymous-linked groups hack Israeli websites, release personal data

An anti-Israel hacking collective affiliated with Anonymous says it has initiated a widespread cyber attack against the Jewish state, penetrating websites affiliated with the Mossad security service and a slew of related entities.

The hackers claimed late Friday that they have obtained and released personal information relating to 35,000 Israeli government officials, including politicians, military leaders, and police officers, according to a Twitter feed associated with the hackers.

A comprehensive spreadsheet purporting to include the information of all 35,000 Israeli officials was published by the website Cryptome, though it did not independently verify the information.

The coalition of hackers appears to have ties to the Iranian government, Pakistan, Syria, Egypt, and the terror group Hezbollah, according to a report published by Cryptome.

The hackers have united under the banner of online movement called “OpIsrael.”

Their stated goal is to “remove the Israel from WWW (World Wide Web),” according to The Hackers Post, which has been following the group’s activities targeting Israel.

“It looks like hacker target [sic] different Israeli servers and hacked the websites,” Hackers Post reported.

The anti-Israel hackers say they perpetrated their attacks to protest treatment of the Palestinians.

“The reason for hacking Israeli websites was to raise voice of Palestine’s [sic] who are under hell created by Israel and left a deface page [on the hacked websites] displaying images of Palestinians affected by Israeli shelling,” the Hackers Post wrote.

Hackers left vitriolic and offensive messages on the websites they accessed, according to the Hackers Post.

“We Not Forgive [sic] What You Have Done To Our Family !!! Long Live Palestine!!” stated one hacker’s message.

A Turkish group may be responsible for publicly releasing the data associated with thousands of Israeli officials, according to the Kremlin-funded Russian propaganda outlet RT.

“The data was released by a hacker team going by the name of ‘The Red Hack,’ a Turkish group, while the direct denial-of-service attack targeted at Mossad was attributed to another group operating under the moniker ‘Sektor 404,’ RT reported.

It is believed that the loosely tied together hackers are gearing up to launch a major cyber strike against Israel on April 7.

Internet users that claim to be affiliated with Anonymous have carried out attacks against Israel in the past. A similar hack occurred in November of last year.

“The hacking teams have decided to unite against Israel as one entity and that Israel should be getting prepared to be ‘erased’ from the Internet,” an Anonymous member told the Hackers Post earlier this month.

Cryptome’s analysis of the hacking collective found that they have loosely united based on their distaste for Israel.

“Our analysis to the moment shows not much of coordination [sic] between these groups contrary to the popular belief and the sum of human resources all together to the best of our current analysis is not more than 50 individuals,” Crytome’s report stated.

“The collectives with Arab leanings are not much advanced,” the report said. “The teams with Pakistani, Syrians and Lebanese members are more advanced and reported to have ties with governments. Iranian teams are just using the situation to harm Israel and U.S interests and reported to be directly funded by IRGC and MOIS, the Iranian Intelligence.”

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Abney and Associates Cybercrime: Be wary of public Wi-Fi while on vacation/FACEBOOK

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MONTREAL – Travellers should be wary of cyber threats on vacation as they access free wireless networks with their smartphones, tablets or laptops, says software security company Symantec Corp.
Canadians travelling for March break and into the summer season shouldn’t be doing things like pulling up their bank accounts on Wi-Fi networks, said Symantec Canada’s Lynn Hargrove.
“What people don’t realize is that there’s no security on those Wi-Fi networks for the most part,” she said.
“It’s a great way to keep in touch while you’re on vacation, but there are some inherent risks that come with it that people just aren’t thinking about.”
Symantec has found that two in 10 Canadians pull up their bank accounts on free Wi-Fi networks in Canada.
Young men are most at risk for cybercrime because they are “fearless” and access risky Internet sites, said Hargrove, director of consumer solutions, from Toronto.
According to Symantec’s 2012 Norton Cybercrime report, travellers are often victimized through their mobile devices while abroad, often by text messages.
“We’re seeing a lot of fraudulent texts asking you to click on a link or go and dial a number to retrieve a voice mail,” Hargrove said.
And the wealth of information stored on a smartphone – pictures, texts, emails, contact lists, work documents, banking information – can be valuable to cyber criminals if stolen or lost, Hargrove said.
“What people aren’t realizing is that in many cases they have more information on that device than they have on their home PC.”
Smartphone users should at a minimum have a password to access their device, Hargrove said, and there’s also security software available for smartphones.
The 2012 Norton Cybercrime report found that 92 per cent of survey respondents in Russia said they had been victims of cybercrime.
For Canadians travelling to Mexico or Brazil, each country has a rate of 75 per cent of its online citizens being past victims of cybercrime, Hargrove said.
In less developed countries with a lot of free Wi-Fi networks there also tends to be a lot of cybercrime, she added. The rate of cybercrime in France is 55 per cent and it’s 70 per cent in Canada, according to the report, which surveyed 13,018 online adults last July in 24 countries including Canada, Australia, Brazil, China, Mexico, Poland Singapore, Turkey, United Kingdom and United States.

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